12 06 2013


Maçoro, July 2008

Singularities & Multiplicities

Singularity that means ‘being single’ is not the only meaning that the word refers to; the meaning of the notion in question is also related to the situation of being ‘singular’ as in being non-ordinary, remarkable, and unique. Singularity is the most basic and hardcore element of creative process in nature referring to a ‘dynamic’ that holds the potential of shaping and organizing the space around its extension. Progressive Differentiation and Individuation which are the sub elements of the Morphogenetic Process- which can be examined through the approaches of topology such as ‘Topological Transformation and Folding’- are the extensions of the conceptual notions of singularity.

Singularity in mathematics can be explained with trajectories that are attracted and curved through the point of attraction. A variable that is adapted to the equation changes the closure of the curvature to the point that this variable refers to (De Landa, 2002). The variable works like a differential, representing a point or points in three dimensional world, encloses the curve which is formed by the equation to itself, re-forming the curve: The potential of singularities to shape and organize the space around can be understood through these examples of mathematics.

Claude-Paul Bruter from  ‘Département de Mathématiques Université Paris’ gives examples by making an analogy through geographic world that can be guideline to understand mathematical notions in question, additionally helping the intension of connection of the conceptual notions with the life of existence:  “Mathematical examples of basic singularities arise from hydrodynamic and geographic analogies : rivers are analogous to trajectories, and singular trajectories which are reduced to points, are called sources, sinks, and saddle points. The meaning of the terms source and sink is clear : from a source, rivers or trajectories goes out, while they end their lives at a sink. A saddle point has both the properties of a source and the properties of a sink : the river or trajectory may be first directed to that point which acts as a sink, but then, approaching the saddle-point which acts now as a source, it is repelled towards another direction” (Bruter, C-P). The system works like a manifold, it is not simple as those singularities getting together to form multiplicities, but, within a space of multiple points of attractions with multiple trajectories multiplicity is formed. These points of attractions often called as topological singularities: Where singularities are called ‘two dimensional manifolds’, the n dimensional curved surfaces that are formed by multiple trajectories and multiple points of attractions, are called manifolds or multiplicities. Manuel De Landa supplies that, “the structure of this n dimensional space of possibilities is the universal singularities, and all the  multiplicities and singularities form the virtual, plane of immanent, this is a conception of spiritual, a spiritual world that is impersonal”(De Landa, 2007)

“The formations in space, a galaxy or a black hole are the examples of singularities of a great scale that the center of them as “cores” have  the role of a point of attraction.

Singularity can also mean a singular state of high stability. Its character can be sensed through the extraordinary values of its parameters that insure fixity (Bruter, C-P). As it was scrutinized before, singularity has the dynamic that holds the potential of shaping and organizing the space around its extension- is through this intrinsic self accord situation of being stable and keeping. For example a leader of a tribe is selected, or has become a leader ‘by force’ – through the dynamics of being tougher, wiser or being descendent of a royal blood, are his intrinsic potentials of becoming that works like a point of attraction where his destiny would be a curve that is attracted through this point which would be a path to leadership, giving him a higher, stronger and stable (stability is a dependant to time situation that is valid only at a certain time- that through time that may be lost) position and the power to rule as this position ‘is a situation of a singularity’ for him, both for being singular as in meaning single, both for being unique, non-ordinary and remarkable and being in a state of higher (relatively) stability. This example can be applied to any ‘becoming’ in nature, animals living together has their leaders and are selected through similar processes that are examples to the intrinsic potentials and dynamics of creative process in nature.

The leadership example is only a one of the nearly infinite creative processes in nature, every formation in nature goes through these similar processes. All the transformations, forms, mutations and evolution are depended on the dynamics that are related to the processes in question. Manuel De Landa supplies with an example to a naturally formed shape of a soap bubble that may help to comprehend the notions better with a different perspective of singularity as an element of creative process in nature: Like many physical structures, soap bubble forms its component to meet certain energy requirements. An example to meeting certain energy requirements is withholding minimal energy to extend the life cycle to maximum. (De Landa 2002).  For the soap bubble it is indispensable that it has to keep its surface tension to minimum to keep its existence- taking the best form as a ‘sphere’ to keep the tension equal through its surface, and adjusting the size of the diameter to keep its surface tension minimum a singularity is achieved The point of attraction is its center where the tension is zero, the trajectory is its liquid density, the main affecter to take its form at certain size under certain circumstances. It’s the singularity that defines multiplicity through the genesis of a physical form.

Even a soap bubble has its own potential of becoming, for singularity is its main engine of self creation, though it may be a smallest example to the formations within the great assemblage, infinite singularities co-exist and ‘affect’ each other to form multiplicities that may be a metaphor of being the essence of all surroundings.


Expressivity is an act of nature to express its states. The expressions of nature are the signals that are to be receipted by its members for manipulating their moves, keeping the self accord situation of the nature, which is a key to logic of affordance that triggers evolution and creative process.

Art, Architecture, Literature are tools for expressivity of humans. It is important to understand not only the humans are capable of expressing themselves, but all of the elements of the nature, animals, plants and even the “non-living” have their way of expressivity; prior to that, the morphogenetic process, evolution, the formation in nature- as assemblage, is due to a complex and dynamic relations and processes in universe where singularities and multiplicities are examples to that.

The non-human expressivity functions as a signalization system, forming the base of the affordance -the main guide of morphogenesis. The water being “hot” is the expressivity of the molecules forming it are filled with energy vibrating, so may be harmful for a living organism to swallow, understanding that it should not touch it, wait until the heat drops, the energy of the  molecules lessens… This is a simple form of expressivity of the non-living, as it may get more complex in various situations.

An old mountain is smooth, where the rocky, bald and the tougher one would cry out that “I am young”, a volcanic mountain would signalize that it is dangerous by the look of it

Manuel De Landa points out that “Geology is the beginning of non-human expressivity” referring the conception of Gilles Deleuze “Geology of Morals”: An old mountain is smooth, where the rocky, bald and the tougher one would cry out that “I am young”, a volcanic mountain would signalize that it is dangerous by the look of it, guiding the animal not to build a nest near the opening. The form of the clouds is three dimensional expressivity or the colors of the materials and components are the signals of the characters of materials as different forms of expressivity, telling about the hardness of it, the lightness of it (De Landa 2007)

A simplest form of expressivity is territoriality. For example, a dog marks his territory with urine, a signature like words: “This is my territory”(De Landa, 2007). But the expressivity of the non-human living organisms can be formed of signatures and actions in more complex way. Bacteria for example are capable of sensing and responding knowing that it should avoid from a toxic area. It is important to remind that the signal of toxins- as a non living expressivity is sensed by the bacteria, as this response of avoiding is another expressivity,-expressivity of a living organism, showing an intimate relationship of folding expressivities.

As this may get more complex, due to genetic variations, some animals are capable of expressions in changing colors for example a changing color of the skin of an animal signaling that it its ready to mate or if it is poisonous or not… etc. But more interestingly there is another type of expressivity in animals that it is “chosen expressivity”: Bower birds for example, are able to decorate their nests to seduce the female. There are three types of bower birds: One of them has a very bright blue colored skin, easily attracts the female, builds simple nest. The skin of the bird, sometimes changing color is its internal expressivity that is due to genes and hormones. The Second type of Bower bird have only a few of its feathers blue, that it builds a much more complicated nest prior to the first one, begins to express itself externally, due to the lack of internal expressivity. The last type of bower bird that have lost all its blue feathers builds a magnificent nest, even seeks some blue ribbons, blue bottle caps around to bring them to decorate its nest to impress the female, this action is not only due to instincts that genetically determined, bird becomes an artist- a simple one, but an artist. The chosen expressivity is not only the ability of the humans, but also the ability of the simpler life forms. It can be said that, when the first human beings were painting the caves they were already surrounded by this environment of conscious expressivity. (De Landa, 2007)

Bower Birds are creatures being one of the best examples to chosen expressivity

Affordance & Assemblage

Montage is to add numerous things together straightly; assemblage however is slightly different that it is things getting together in the line of adaptation and formation. For example if a wooden shelf is connected to the wall with a screwdriver, that is simply montage. If we think the relations in the same way, but more complex, to wear hat is also a montage, but the hair is that comes out of your head through your skin is an adaptation as a part of a morphogenetic process that is a new formation, therefore is an assemblage. Nature (as in universal extend) is the greatest assemblage that its members are assembled with each other in a line of adaptation related to the notions of affordance.

Prior to expressivity, affordance is the act of morphological adaptations in nature that works like a tuner of the nature, keeping the assemblage accorded and triggering evolution.

James Gibson, one of the most important psychologists in the field of visual perception, has very important studies on animal behavior and how animals perceive their environment. Gibson has invented the term affordance As long as environment (all the members of it, nonliving / living are included) expresses its capacities to affect and to be affected with certain signals that animals/us to perceive, it guides its members; all the opportunities and the risks of the environment (biological or geological) affords an animal with, or supplies an animal with, or provides an animal with… Manuel De Landa have told in his book Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy “Ecosystem is a complex ‘assemblage’ of a large number of heterogeneous components” Expending the term ‘affordance’ introduced by James Gibson within the context of a theory of ecological interactions. For example water, for an insect may be a surface to walk or leave its larva, but for an elephant it’s impossible to walk: lake is insect’s affordance. Or the ground may only be a walking surface for an animal, where for another it can provide a place to hide: the ground has afforded an animal with providing a hideout. (De Landa 2002, De Landa 2006) This guidance or providence as you may call it, is the trigger of the evolution, tuner of the nature as an assemblage, and provides this assemblage to be self-accorded, is the machine of the creative process of the self organized nature – as in Kant’s beautiful nature, by supplying a ready to transform base structure for the construction of the universe of unlimited possibilities.

The lake has afforded water strider a walking surface were an emptied log provides a hiding place for snake

The nature consists of singular and irregular construction, and in much deeper than a reflection of a self accorded formation that is capable of stranger mechanism of morphology. The point of attractions, drags the trajectories in the space that creates singularities, singularities come together and forms multiplicities, filled with intensive processes, progressive differentiations cause new formations in nature, chain reaction process of neoteny as key to individualization, conceptual notions of creative process in the nature. Looking through these concepts, it may be understood that the process is unplanned, everything is unfinished-ready to evolve. Through this, a dynamic, non-stop, creative process is in question.

Evolution and Darwinian Approach

The nature is morphologically pregnant to all possibilities of formations. The dynamics of its formation can be explained through complex mathematical and physical notions, basically as “Singularities are the most basic and hardcore elements of creative process in nature referring to a ‘dynamic’ that holds the potential of shaping and organizing the space around its extension” , consisting the notions of  “Progressive Differentiation and Individuation which are the sub elements of the Morphogenetic Process- which can be examined through the approaches of topology such as Topological Transformation and Folding”. Keeping all these notions in mind, the formation of life due to a protein molecule (DNA) can be comprehended where the question will be “How and through which creative processes such complex molecules like proteins are formed nearly out of nowhere?” which is an important one for understanding the logic of evolution.

The genetic code that withholds all the definition that defines a living organism is due to chromosomes consists of DNA spiral which is a very complex and large protein. Like every protein, DNA is a complex molecule. To be reminded that molecules are the main structures of every formation, are made up of atoms: The simplest structures which are elements.

The whole of the living organisms of today have formed of molecules that has the ability to replicate themselves that were formed through chemical processes. The chances of the formation of a working protein ‘intrinsically’ is so small that its possibility is same as a plane would formed by itself out of a  whirlwind winding within a scrap field (Charlesworth, 2006). Through experimental processes, scientists have obtained some of the basic chemical structures of life like sugars, fats, some amino acids and foundational elements of DNA and RNA, by giving electrical waves to simple molecule solutions or exposing them to radioactive waves. There were small steps taken to obtain molecules that are more complex similar to DNA’s or RNA’s, but scientists were not very successful to make those molecules replicate themselves (Charlesworth, 2006).

Looking to the age, scale and dynamics of the universe, the possibilities, of elements coming together to form a complex molecule like protein, which is associative with its surroundings, and the chances of formation of a complex organism which consists of various complex molecules that are functioning as the elements of a larger assemblage would not be small or unimaginable. The morphology of life beginning from the simplest life forms to the most complex ones is the most sophisticated example to the natural creative process that can be comprehended with evolutional theories.

As it was emphasized in previous chapters that the trigger of the evolution is affordance that keeps the assemblage tuned in a line of adaptation: The idea of evolution, proposes various natural processes which describes the variety of species and the characteristics of their adaptation to their natural habitat through no celestial explanations. The evolutional processes depend on the emergence of new and evolved forms of living organisms called ‘mutations’. Mutation is so rare and a by coincidence situation that it occurs nearly in one percent of a hundred thousand members of a generation of a population. For evolutional change to occur, various mutational formations have to be repeated through generations (Charlesworth, 2006). In relation to these processes, the most important dynamic of evolution is ‘natural selection’. For survival of a species the adaptation is absolutely necessary. If, mutations occurred by coincidence, improves the survival situation of a species in a specific habitat, for it (mutations) will be transferred through generations by genetic code (DNA), the survivors that have the specific individuals of the species will extend their life easier and their percentage in numbers will dominate the population.

Specific mutations that is essential for survival of an individual in its natural environment is a form of adaptation that through natural processes only the members of species that has the specific mutation may survive in various situations: is natural selection; that, evolution may seem rather a process of an action of purposeful intention, however it is a very important milestone natural creative process which proposes a ‘half-by coincidence’ model and an important explanation to the formation of the natural environment.



12 06 2013


Maçoro,  September 2009

In the context of being a dynamic tool for creative process that is different from a sketch, a code or a schema; diagram functions as an abstract machine for creative process by providing intensive creativity and endless possibilities. Diagram, like a machine, provides abstractions that maintain the situation of being pregnant to newer formations at all times.

The term ‘abstract’ in modern picture refers to a definition of a line with variable direction which traces no contour, and delimits no form. In 1980’s, at the time when Deleuze had written ‘A Thousand Plateaus’ with Guattari, he asked directly the question; what should one call abstract in modern art? This issue is consequent to the long re-thinking of the idea of modern and abstract, which Deleuze had put forward in 1960’s; which involved the term ‘abstract machine’ that refers to ‘almost automatic’ series that one sees emerging in pop and in minimalism at that time in New York, around the same time of abstract expressionism, which carried out the questions if the painting was coming to an end. (Rajchman, 1998)

In accordance to the approach to diagram at issue and besides the notion of expressivity that is important to Deleuze’s point of view of ‘abstract’; he pointed out a situation in which ‘the canvas is never empty’, in other words the page is never blank (Rajchman, 1998). Due to the endless possibilities of creativity through an abstractive process, it can be implicated that diagram operates not only to visualize the invisible thoughts making them easier to understand functioning as a descriptive tool, but also to visualize the expressivity by functioning as an abstractive tool that provides sensation in the painting- establishing a bond between the painter and the observer.

According to Deleuze, diagram has been no longer an auditory or visual device; rather it functions as a map, a cartography that is coextensive with the whole social field as an abstract machine. This abstract machine is defined by its functioning in unformed matter, as series of processes that are neither mechanical nor organic. The diagram is both the ‘form’ and the ‘matter’; the visible and the articulable (Eisenman, 1999). The definition of diagram as an abstractive tool like in the metaphor of abstract machine, remarks the characteristics of diagram functioning as a medium in between the actual and the virtual, which supplies open ended situations for creativity. In the same context, diagram specifies the relations between formed/organized matter and unformalized/unfinalized functions; as a mediator that joins the two significant regimes: space (the visible) and the language (the invisible). In this manner diagram operates as a map/machine – a spatiotemporal abstraction (Vidler, 1999).

Regarding the fact that, the act of painting in diagrammatic manner involves an intensive form of the creative process, it should also be considered that the architectural design process is another form of an intensive creative process involving diagrams. Diagram acts as an agency which focuses the relationships between an authorial subject, an architectural object, and a receiving subject: it is the strata that exist between them (Eisenman, 1999). Just like it has been strongly underlined previously that diagram is a mediator between the actual and the virtual- visualizing expressivity and providing sensation; it functions similarly for architectural design process. Diagrammatic process has helped architects to visualize their invisible thoughts for design differently from sketches, schemas or various other tools of visual representations of information, functioning not only as a descriptive tool for the receiving subject, but also a generative tool for creative process involving authorial subject.

In order to better comprehend the issue of what is the place of diagram as an abstractive tool- in the same manner involved in modern painting- in architectural design process, it would be appropriate to have a look at the architectural design processes of the early works of Zaha Hadid. If the drawings Hadid had come up with in the early phases of her design are examined, it can be seen that these drawings are in between virtual and actual. They are neither the exact provisions of future, nor purely abstract suggestions that have architectural connection with place. They are neither just sketches, nor organization schemes. These drawings carry information both on possible tectonic relationships of spatial units, suggestions of new possible lifestyles, and the juxtaposition with the new and the existing. They are diagrams of architectural design process, as they are the preparatory works and the expectants of newer formations, ready to transform into architectonics; in the same way with the preparatory works on canvas – which is the process of flow of data in artist’s mind as representations of the possible realities – that are ready to transform into figure (Celant, 2003).

Diagrams in the architectural design process are transformed into the concrete world, keeping their fluidity, intensity and identity- which are the agenda of Hadid’s design approach. Looking at a single diagram, multiple propositions of façade, juxtaposed with the images of the interior, even the rear façade instantly, moreover, various life style suggestions can be seen; in one single frame complexities as a representation of a possible reality can be observed and sensed). Diagrams – in this point of view- have much more potential than a single organizational scheme, a perspective drawing or a sketch. For example in aerial perspective and layering drawing for Reina Sofia Museum, both the possible spatial relation of volumes which forms the structure, and the relationship of the structure with the environment can be seen, in semi-exposed and exploded way, and in one single frame.

Painting, The Peak, Blue Slabs, Hong Kong, Zaha Hadid, 1982-83

Painting, The Peak, Exploded Isometric, Hong Kong, Zaha Hadid, 1982-83

Painting, Cardiff Opera House, Zaha Hadid, 1994

Painting, Reina Sofia Museum, Aerial perspective and layering, Zaha Hadid, 1999

As it was scrutinized before, there is a transformation process of the abstract data to figure through diagrammatic process in picture. In the same way, the diagrammatic paintings of Zaha Hadid involve the ‘data’ that are ready to transform, which is in between abstract and figural, and that are expectants of newer formations (Mertins, 2003). Just like a raw material, they are processed, and transformed into concrete, keeping their fluidity, intensity and identity through diagrammatic creative process (Schumacher, 2002). That is why Zaha Hadid’s preparatory works are diagrammatic in the same way Deleuze have pointed out. As an outcome, the creator of such diagrams holds so many options of possibilities, ability to represent the thoughts in her mind in an expressive state that makes the observer or the potential user to complete the unrevealed parts of that dream. The Hadid’s diagram has distortions in the same way Bacon had in his paintings, the same continuity, the same fluidity and intensity of a diagram in canvas, making promises in the same way of Bacon’s diagram hidden on canvas (Giovannini, 2003). For Hadid’s paintings as abstract diagrams are tools to create new expectations such as, “what –possibly- it will be like in future” for the observer and stimulate various senses in the same nomadic way Deleuze had described, they are indeed outcomes of the act of expressivity and tools for sensation.

These characteristics of preparatory works of Hadid make them perfect diagrammatic tools. They form the abstract machines for the creative process sustaining the rich possibilities of formations, providing the ideal potentiality for an architectural design. Diagram in this sense becomes a dynamic transformative tool, just like in the situation of modern paintings- not a frozen state of design thinking as in a sketch or a schema. As there are various examples of diagrammatic processes in architectural design that can be taken in hand in the context of the notions in question; a significant one is of New Babylon Project, which was a series of utopian cities designed in 1959-74 by artist-architect Constant Nieuwenhuys. The design process of this utopia, which includes: collages of the new proposals with the existing, paintings of involving provisions of future and that are in between abstract and figural, that are filled with sensations , has a significant potential of being abstract machines and are to be named as ‘Diagrams of Utopia’ (Vidler, 1999).

Collage of the built model with realistic environment, New Babylon Project, Activist Drawing, 1999

Model, New Babylon Project, Activist Drawing, 1999

Painting by Nieuwenhuys, New Babylon Project, Activist Drawing, 1999

Sketch by Nieuwenhuys, New Babylon Project, Activist Drawing, 1999

As a technique of drawing, Nieuwenhuys encounters the nature of the project itself for what he is trying to represent is this very character. For this reason the drawings of New Babylon slide form being ‘mechanical’ to being ‘expressive’ (Wigley, 1999). The power of convincing (it may be thought that it is necessary for an utopian) comes from this representation effect that is intrinsic in these drawings, as they are filled with sensations. Nieuwenhuys’ representations provide the sense of the limitless possibilities inherent in the New Babylon. These representations involve drawings that ‘look like’ architectural plans, sections, models; they are neither exactly perspectives, nor sketches or massing models: They are rather ‘diagrams’. They are depictions, whether drawn or modeled, that look precise and at the same time imprecise, that look like tectonics but harbor no tectonics (Vidler, 1999).

Just like in Hadid’s work, they include the data that are ready to transform, which is in between abstract and figural. Diagrams that are involved in creative process of New Babylon project are in the role of abstract machines, which provide situations morphologically pregnant to newer formations, by providing the convincing effect, of the potentialities of what may happen in future. Nieuwenhuys’ work can be defined as diagrams of utopia; not only for they involve the representation effect that may be evaluated as data that are in-between the ‘actual’ and the ‘virtual’, but also for they are the outcome of an act of expressivity and tools providing sensations.


12 06 2013

Pat Metheny Does Not Need His Band Anymore (!?)

Pat Metheny, one of the greatest jazz musicians of our time have  developed a project called ‘Orchestrion’,  by actually ‘inventing’ various new musical instruments and interconnecting them through a network,  involving an artificially intelligent way of making music. The tools that are in harmony with each other goes with Metheny’s instructions formed of sounds that comes out of his guitar both in accordance of rhythm and melody.

Pat Metheny describes this project as:

This project represents a conceptual direction that merges an idea from the late 19th and early 20th centuries with the technologies of today to create a new, open-ended platform for musical composition, improvisation and performance.

“Orchestrionics” is the term that I am using to describe a method of developing ensemble-oriented music using acoustic and acoustoelectric musical instruments that are mechanically controlled in a variety of ways, using solenoids and pneumatics. With a guitar, pen or keyboard I am able to create a detailed compositional environment or a spontaneously developed improvisation, with the pieces on this particular recording leaning toward the compositional side of the spectrum. On top of these layers of acoustic sound, I add my conventional electric guitar playing as an improvised component.

At least for me, this takes the term “solo record” into some new and interesting areas, somewhat recontextualizing the idea of what constitutes a solo performance by a single musician. This project is the result of a lifelong dream in this area that dates back to my early youth.”

For more information visit http://www.patmetheny.com


18 03 2011


Gilles Deleuze’ün “Sanatın Göçebe Felsefesi” makalesi üzerine…

E. N. Maçoro,  Şubat 2007

Tasarım, sınırları belli bir hal almadan önce birçok dolambaçlı yoldan geçer. Tasarımın ilk aşamalarında tasarımcının kafasında bir takım veriler, hedefler, hayaller, yargılar vardır. Daha da ileri gidersek,  tasarımcının tasarlıyor olduğu “şey” aracılığı ile kullanıcı ya da gözlemciye sunmak istediği bir takım hisler vardır. Tasarımın tek var oluş nedeni, her zaman ve sadece işe yararlık değildir, tasarım kullanıcıyla ya da gözlemciyle duyular yoluyla iletişim kurar. Bu mimari tasarımda da böyledir – mimari tasarım için aksini iddia etmek, onun amacının içinde yaşanacak makineler tasarlamak olduğunu söylemekle eş değerdir. Gözlemci ya da kullanıcı mimari tasarım ürününü de, beş duyusundan birisini, bir kaçını, ya da hepsini birden kullanarak algılar;  görür, dokunur, koklar-tadar, işitir. İşte gözlemcinin, ürünü, algılamak, anlamak, yorumlamak ve hissetmek bağlamında – duyularını bütünsel olarak kullanarak- yaptığı şey duyumsamadır (sensation).

Post-Empresyonizm akımının öncülerinden Cezanne, resimde yansıtmak istediklerini, duyumsatma yoluyla yapmıştır.  Cezanne duyumsamayı icat etmemiştir, ancak onu empresyonistlerden birkaç adım öne taşımıştır. Şöyle ki, artık duyumsama, sadece ışık ve renk oyunları ile yaratılan hisler değil, gözlemcinin resimle tamamen bütünleştirilmesi, onun adeta içine girmesi, resmi bütünsel olarak algılaması ve birçok duyuya birden seslenerek bir hisler armonisinin yaratılmasıdır.

Cezanne’nın “Mount Sainte-Victorie” resimleri kronolojik sıra ile incelendiğinde, duyumsatma hedefi bağlamında, bir sahnenin birebir resmedilmesinin gerekli olmadığı, yansıtılmak istenenin hedefi doğrultusunda, bir takım bozunmalar, boyutsal indirgemeler (kübist hareketin habercileri gibi…) belirsiz konturlar, farklı renk, darbe, dokular ve buna benzer çok yöntemle bunun başarılmak istendiği anlaşılır.


Mount Sainte-Victoire. 1904-1906

* * *

Cezanne’ı, Francis Bacon’a bağlayan temel şey “duyumsamanın resmedilmesi”dir. Bacon ile Cezanne arasında teknik ve dönemsel açıdan çok fark vardır; ancak söz konusu odaklanan nokta gereği iki ressam arasındaki bu temel bağlantıya dikkat çekmek önemlidir. Bacon bir röportajında duyu seviyelerinden (levels of sensation), duyumsanabilir alanlardan (sensible domains) ve hareketli dizilerden (moving sequences) bahseder. Bacon’un söz konusu kavramlarla ilgili bahsettikleri şöyle yorumlanabilir: Her resmedilende, bir ya da birkaç duyumsanabilir alan – her biri bir duyuyu harekete geçiren odak bulunabilir. Farklı resimler söz konusu olduğunda gözlemci her bir resme geçişinde bir duyumsama seviyesi yakalar, yani bir ya da birkaç duyusu birden farklı dozlarda ve farklı şekillerde hareketlenir ki bu süre zarfında bir ritim yakalanır – duyu seviyeleri ritmi. Bütün bu duyu oluşlarının sonucunda, bütünsel bir duyumsamaya ulaşılır.

Bacon’un yaratısı ünlü birkaç “üçleme” incelendiğinde söz konusu kavramlar daha net anlaşılır. Örneğin  Mayıs- Haziran 1973 üçlemesinde, eşcinsel erkek arkadaşının kaldıkları otel odasındaki ölümünü resmetmiştir. Burada, gözlemci, olayla ilgili bütün empatik –tiksinti, acıma, işkence, çaresizlik vb.-hisleri yaşar. Resim adeta bir film şeridi gibi bir dinamiktir. Sadece 3 karesi olan bir film şeridi gibi olmasına karşın, bütün olay yaşanmış kadar olunur, 3 kare arasındaki gidiş gelişler, duyuların ritmini oluşturur, hareketi oluşturan işte bu ritimdir; çünkü sahneler bir film şeridi mantığıyla sırayla birbiri ardına dizilmiş değildir. Buradaki hareket sahnelerdeki sıralı süreklilikten kaynaklanmaz, farklı sahnelerdeki farklı biçim ve dozdaki duyuların bir ritim halinde bütünsel olarak algılanmasından kaynaklanır. Bütün bu algıların sonucu total bir duyumsamadır.

Bacon, Triptych, May-June, 1973

Bacon farklı dönemlerde, etkilendiği olaylardan da kaynaklanan, kendi farklı his dünyasını resme adeta kusar. Bacon’un resminde hareket sadece bir takım serilerde ve üçlemelerde gizli değildir, tekil resimlerde de katmanlı olarak birçok düşünceyi ve olayı aktarır. Durağan figüratif resimlerinde bile figürün ya da temsili figürün etrafında dönen bir dünya vardır. Örneğin “Painting 1946”da –ki bu tesadüfen üretilmiş başka niyetle başlanıp, bir başka niyetle bitirilmiş, rastlantısal bir resimdir- neredeyse et kokusunu hissedersiniz. Birbirlerine tematik olarak birbirlerine yakın olan “Head” serileri ve “The Study After Velasqez: Pope Innocent X” de ise korkarsınız, aslında korkunun kaynağı figürün kendisi değildir, göremediğiniz, gizil olan, figürde o etkiyi yaratan bir dış etmendir. Burada figür garip bir şekilde bir cam kutunun içine yerleştirilmiştir, bağırmaktan başka bir şey de yapamamakta oluşu, o çaresizliği korku dozunu arttırır, korku figür üzerinden yaratılır; ancak aslı amaç korkuyu figür dışından o “görülmeyen” üzerinden katlamaktır. Figür bir araçtır, bir yansımadır, belki de anahtar kelime “temsil” olmalıdır. Örneğin “Head” serisini ele alırsak, söz konusu “temsiliyet” korkunun bir temsiliyeti midir? Aslında bu çok net ayırt edilemeyecektir, bir temsiller bütünü vardır. Tuval’e yansıyan temsil ya da temsiller bütünü Bacon’un resminde iyice belirginleşir, bir duyumsatma aracı olur. İşte bu nokta bizi “diyagram” kavramına biraz daha yaklaştırır. Bacon’un resminde, tuvalin arkasında bize hisler duyumsatan gizil şey(ler) vardır. Acaba nedir bu şey(ler)?


Pope Innocent X, Velázquez

Study after Velázquez Portrait of Pope Innocent X, Bacon

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Resim de bir hazırlık aşamasından bahsedilir. Bu hazırlık aşaması eskizlerden ibaret değildir sadece. Bacon’un tanımına ve yöntemine göre bu hazırlık aşaması tuvalde bir takım rastlantısal izler bırakma, noktalar koyma, bir takım silme, yayma işlemleri hatta değişik hızlarda ve yoğunluklarda boya fırlatarak-damlatarak bir takım izler bırakma olarak anlatılabilir. Bu hazırlık aşamasında ressam bütün birikimini ve duygularını tuvale döker daha sonra resim bu altyapı üzerine kurulur, tamamlanır. İşte bu az önce bahsedilen “Hisler duyumsatan gizil şeyleri” bu alt yapı oluşturur. Bu alt yapının üzerine bir kurulum icra edilir, Bacon resimdeki bu altyapı ve kurulum kavramına “diyagram” adını vermiştir. Anlaşılacağı üzere resimdeki diyagramların mantığı biraz da rastlantısallık ve hisler üzerindedir. Deleuze diyagramları, başka bir dünyadan gelmiş olan olarak nitelendirir. Deleuze göre bunlar, irrasyonel, istemsiz, rastlantısal, özgür hatta kazara yaratılmışlardır; tekilken bir şeyi temsil etmezler, anlatısı ve görselliği tek başlarına yoktur. Bunlar duyumsamanın, ancak karmaşık bir duyumsamanın ürünleridir.

Bacon’a göre, diyagramlar gerçeklik ihtimalleri sunar, tek başlarına yeterli değildir, bir nesnel gerçeğe dönüşmelidir, bunun için de resimsel bütünlüğe aşılanmalıdır; diyagramların resimsel gerçekliğe dönüşmesi için, bir figüratif olabilmesi için bu gereklidir. Ancak resmin her zaman bir gerçeklik veya figüratiflik iddiası olmayabilir. O zaman diyagramların da resimsel bir gerçekliğe dönüşmesi iddiası da ortadan kalkar. Örneğin Jackson Pollock’un çalışmalarında resmin kendisi bir diyagramdır. Pollock resmi yaratırken, rastlantısal olarak “o an” kafasındakileri fırça darbeleriyle, boya fırlatmayla tuvale aktarmıştır.  Bu çoğunlukla “soyut izlenimcilik” olarak adlandırılır. Burada artık bir kargaşa vardır ve tam anlamıyla diyagram-resim söz konusudur, figüratif bir anlatım yoktur.

Jackson Pollock,  Action Painting

Soyut resmin öncülerinden Mondrian’ın resmini incelersek, bir takım kare alanlar, bir takım çizgiler, belki bu kalın çizgilerin arasında boyanmış kare alanlar veya çizgilerin içinde bir takım karecikler görürüz. Gözlemci bütün bu biçimler arasında bir denge arar ve onu bütünsel bir biçimde yorumlamaya çalışır. Mondrian’ın resminde de figüratif bir anlatım yoktur. İlk bakışta Mondrian’ın resim de bir diyagram-resim olarak yorumlanabilir. Ancak Deleuze, soyut resimde diyagramdan çok bir “kod” olduğundan bahseder. Şöyle ki: Soyut resim diyagramdan türememiş, artık bir sembolik kod türetmiştir. Bu kod basamaklı (digital) olup bu basamaklar görsel olarak bir araya gelen üniteler halini almıştır ve artık onu duyumsayan bir algı yerine onu sayan parmaklar vardır.

Broadway Boogie-Woogie,  Mondrian

Bacon’ a göre diyagram duyumsamanın anahtarıdır. Diyagram hazırlık aşamasını tamamlar ve resmedilme aşamasını başlatır. Diyagram elbette bir karmaşadır; ancak aynı zamanda bir düzenin ve ritmin tohumlarıdır, habercisidir, bir altyapıdır. Bacon duyumsama ve diyagramatik resim bağlamında ne tamamen soyut sanatın izinde bir yol izlemektedir ne de tam figüratif bir yol seyretmektedir. Bacon ikisinin ortasında bir yol takip eder. Diyagram Bacon’un resminde bir altyapıdır, resmin kendisi ne tamamen bir diyagramdır ne tamamen ondan arınmıştır, ne de bir koda dönüştürülmüştür; Bacon’un diyagramı, “duyumsatmayı amaç edinmiş resminin” içinde gizlidir, onun anahtarıdır, onun figüratif resmi, diyagramdan dönüşmüş, çıkmış olandır.

Bütün bu kavramlar günümüzdeki mimari tasarım anlayışları ile üst üste çakıştırılabilir. Gilles Deleuze’nin resim sanatındaki diyagramlarla ilgili yaptığı tespitler, biz mimarlara tasarım süreci ile ilgili bir takım sorular sorduruyor Kuşkusuz bugün mimari tasarım sürecinde rol oynayan yapı taşlarının birçoğunun kökleri bilime, güzel sanatlara, felsefeye uzanıyor. Bu yapı taşlarından bir tanesi olan “diyagramların” köklerinin modern resimde olduğunu görüyoruz. Tasarım sürecinin niteliklerini daha iyi kavrayabilmek için, duyumsama ve diyagram kavramlarının derin bir anlayışla irdelenmesi gereği ortadadır.